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Publisher’s Platform: History of ‘sprout breaks’ and why food safety folks avoid them

Date Causative Agent Illnesses Reported Source Country of Outbreak Jan  2020 – Mar 2020 E. coli O103 51 Clover sprouts Multistate, U.S.: https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2020/o103h2-02-20/index.html Nov  2019 – Dec 2019 E. coli O103 22 Clover sprouts Iowa, U.S.: https://www.fda.gov/inspections-compliance-enforcement-and-criminal-investigations/warning-letters/jimmy-johns-franchise-llc-599962-02212020 Dec  2017-Jan 2018 SalmonellaMontevideo 10 Sprouts Multistate, U.S.: https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/montevideo-01-18/index.html May-July 2016 Salmonella 30 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: https://www.foodsafetynews.com/2016/08/fresh-sprouts-from-denver-linked-to-9-state-outbreak/#.WXeKjBTZqf4 Apr. 2016 SalmonellaSaintpaul 244 Mung bean sprouts Australia.: http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/south-australia/extra-five-cases-in-sa-for-bean-sprout-contamination/news-story/a3579929ba487a9acbcfaa46b58afcb7  Jan. 2016 E. coli O157 11 Alfalfa sprouts Jack & The Green Sprouts (Wisconsin) Minnesota, U.S.: https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2016/o157-02-16/index.html Nov. 2015- Jan. 2016 SalmonellaMuenchen  13 Alfalfa sprouts from Sweetwater Farms (Kansas) Multistate, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/enteritidis-11-14/; http://www.fda.gov/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/Outbreaks/ucm424426.htm Sep. 2014 SalmonllaEnteriditis 115 Bean sprouts produced by Wonton Foods Multistate, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/enteritidis-11-14/; http://www.fda.gov/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/Outbreaks/ucm424426.htm Jun.-Aug. 2014 Listeria monocytogenes 5 Mung brean sprouts produced by Wholesome Soy Products Illinois and Michigan, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/bean-sprouts-11-14/index.html; http://www.fda.gov/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/Outbreaks/ucm422562.htm May. 2014 E. coli O121 19 Raw clover sprouts produced by Evergreen Fresh Sprouts, LLC of Idaho are likely source Washington and Idaho, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2014/o121-05-14/index.html; http://www.doh.wa.gov/Newsroom/2014NewsReleases/14070CloverSproutsSourceofEColiOutbreak Jul. 2012 SalmonellaCubana 19 Sprouts, unspecified Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Mar. 2012 Listeria monocytogenes 6 Sprouts, unspecified Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Dec. 2011-Feb. 2012 E. coli O26 29 Raw clover sprouts at Jimmy John’s restaurants is the likely cause of this outbreak Multistate, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2012/O26-02-12/index.html; http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Aug. 2011 SalmonellaAgona 7 Sprouts, unspecified Kansas, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Apr.-Jul. 2011 SalmonellaEnteritidis 27 Alfalfa sprouts and spicy sprout produced by Evergreen Fresh Sprouts, LLC Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, New Jersey and Washington, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/sprouts-enteritidis0611/070611/index.html;  http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx May-Jul. 2011 E. coli O104:H4 4,075 Bean sprouts Europe, Canada and U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6250a3.htm; Buchholz, U., Bernard, H., Werber, D., Böhmer, M. M., Remschmidt, C., Wilking, H., … & Kühne, M. (2011). German outbreak of Escherichia coli O104: H4 associated with sprouts. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(19), 1763-1770. https://www-s.med.illinois.edu/m2/epidemiology/LiteratureCritique/pdf/Buchholz_2011.pdf Apr. 2011 SalmonellaMuenchen 7 Clover sprouts Michigan, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Dec. 2010-Jan. 2011 SalmonellaNewport 9 Clover sprouts produced by Sprouters Northwest, Inc., of Kent, WA Oregon and Washington, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx;http://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/1500/NewsReleases/2011/11-001CloverSproutsRecall.pdf Dec. 2010 SalmonellaCubana 3 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx  Nov. 2010-
Feb. 2011 Salmonellaserotype I 4,[5],12:i:- 140 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/i4512i-/021011/index.html; http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Aug.-Oct. 2010 SalmonellaBareilly 190 Bean sprouts U.K.:
http://www.hpa.org.uk:80/webw/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1287143210927?p=1259152466069 Mar.-Jun. 2010 SalmonellaNewport 44 Alfalfa sprouts produced by J.H. Caldwell and Sons Inc. of Maywood, CA Multistate, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/newport/; http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Feb. 2010 unknown 4 Sprouts, unspecified Colorado, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Aug. 2009 SalmonellaTyphimurium 14 Alfalfa sprouts Michigan, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Jun. 2009 SalmonellaBovismorbificans 42 Ready-to-eat alfalfa sprouts Finland: Rimhanen-Finne, R., Niskanen, T., Lienemann, T., Johansson, T., Sjöman, M., Korhonen, T., Guedes, S., Kuronen, H., Virtanen, M. J., Mäkinen, J., Jokinen, J., Siitonen, A. and Kuusi, M. (2011), A Nationwide Outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans Associated with Sprouted Alfalfa Seeds in Finland, 2009. Zoonoses and Public Health, 58: 589–596. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1863-2378.2011.01408.x/abstract Apr.-Jul. 2009 SalmonellaCubana 14 Onion sprouts and mixed onion/alfalfa sprout Canada:http://www.bccdc.ca/resourcematerials/newsandalerts/healthalerts/2009HealthAlerts/SalmonellaCubanaOutbreak_aug24.htm Apr. 2009 SalmonellaCubana 2 Sprouts, unspecified Minnesota, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Feb.-May. 2009 Salmonella Saintpaul 256 Raw alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/alfalfa/; http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5818a4.htm Feb. 2009 SalmonellaOranienberg 25 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Sep. 2008 E. coli O157:NM 21 Alfalfa sprouts; iceberg lettuc, unspecified Colorado, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Jul. 2008 SalmonellaTyphimurium 24 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/default.aspx; http://www.fda.gov/safety/recalls/archiverecalls/2008/ucm112494.htm Mar. 2008 Listeria monocytogenes 20 Sprouts, unspecified Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Jul.-Oct. 2007 SalmonellaWeltevreden 45 Alfalfa sprouts Denmark, Norway and Finland: Emberland KE, Ethelberg S, Kuusi M, Vold L, Jensvoll L, Lindstedt BA, Nygård K, Kjelsø C, Torpdahl M, Sørensen G, Jensen T, Lukinmaa S, Niskanen T, Kapperud G. Outbreak of Salmonella Weltevreden infections in Norway, Denmark and Finland associated with alfalfa sprouts, July-October 2007. Euro Surveill. 2007;12(48):pii=3321. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=3321  Jul.-Aug. 2007 SalmonellaStanley 44 Alfalfa sprouts Sweden: Werner S, Boman K, Einemo I, Erntell M, de Jong B, Lindqvist A, Löfdahl M, Löfdahl S, Meeuwisse A, Ohlen G, Olsson M, Stamer U, Sellström E, Andersson Y. Outbreak of Salmonella Stanley in Sweden associated with alfalfa sprouts, July-August 2007. Euro Surveill. 2007;12(42):pii=3291. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=3291  Apr. 2007 SalmonellaMbandaka 15 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Feb. 2006 SalmonellaBraenderup 4 Bean sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Nov. 2005 SalmonellaOranienberg 125 Alfalfa sprouts Australia: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-cdi3003b.htm Nov. 2005 SalmonellaBraenderup 2 Mung sprouts Massachusetts, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Oct.-Dec. 2005 Salmonella spp. 648 Mung sprouts Canada: http://news.ontario.ca/archive/en/2005/12/14/Update-on-Salmonella-Outbreak.html; Outbreak of Salmonella entertidis phage type 13 associated with mung bean sprouts in Ontario, 2005. Outbreak Investigation. May 17. 2006. http://www.sproutnet.com/pdfs/Toronto-Mung-2005.pdf Apr. 2004 E. coli O157:NM 2 Alfalfa sprouts Georgia, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Apr. 2004 SalmonellaBovismorbificans 35 Raw alfalfa sprouts produced by Sprouters Northwest, Inc., of Kent, WA Oregon and Washington, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx; http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2004/ucm108307.htm Nov. 2003 SalmonellaChester 26 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Jul. 2003 E. coli O157:NM 13 Alfalfa sprouts Colorado, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx; D. D. Ferguson, J. Scheftel, A. Cronquist, K. Smith, A. Woo-Ming, E. Anderson J. Knutsen, A. K. De and K. Gershman (2005). Temporally distinct Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks associated with alfalfa sprouts linked to a common seed source – Colorado and Minnesota, 2003. Epidemiology and Infection, 133, pp 439-447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268804003589 Feb. 2003 SalmonellaSaintpaul 16 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Feb. 2003 E. coli O157:H7 7 Alfalfa sprouts Minnesota, U.S.: D. D. Ferguson, J. Scheftel, A. Cronquist, K. Smith, A. Woo-Ming, E. Anderson J. Knutsen, A. K. De and K. Gershman (2005). Temporally distinct Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks associated with alfalfa sprouts linked to a common seed source – Colorado and Minnesota, 2003. Epidemiology and Infection, 133, pp 439-447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268804003589 Jan. 2003 E. coli O157:H7 20 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Jul. 2002 E. coli O157:H7 5 Alfalfa sprouts California, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Apr. 2001 SalmonellaEntertidis 35 Mung sprouts Florida, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Feb. 2001 SalmonellaKottbus 32 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Jan. 2001 SalmonellaEntertidis 22 Mung sprouts Hawaii, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Feb.-Mar. 2001 SalmonellaEnteritidis 84 Mung sprouts Canada: Honish, L., & Nguyen, Q. (2001). Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 913 gastroenteritis associated with mung bean sprouts–Edmonton, 2001. Canada communicable disease report= Relevé des maladies transmissibles au Canada, 27(18), 151. http://www.sproutnet.com/Outbreak-of-Salmonella-in-Canada Oct. 2001 unknown 2 Alfalfa sprouts Florida, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Nov. 2000 S. Enteritidis phage type 4b 12 Bean sprouts Netherlands: van Duynhoven, Y. T., Widdowson, M. A., de Jager, C. M., Fernandes, T., Neppelenbroek, S., van den Brandhof, W., … & van Pelt, W. (2002). Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4b outbreak associated with bean sprouts. Emerging infectious diseases, 8(4), 440. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730240/ May. 2000 Salmonella enterica 3 Alfalfa spouts (suspected) Florida, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx 2000 SalmonellaEnteritidis 75 Mung sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Apr.-Jun. 2000 SalmonellaEnteritidis 12 Mung sprouts Canada: Harb, J., Isaacs, S., Fyfe, M., Crowe, L., Slater, B., Ahmed, R., … & Hockin, J. (2003). Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 11B in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, June 2000. Canada communicable disease report= Relevé des maladies transmissibles au Canada, 29(14), 125. http://www.sproutnet.com/Outbreak-of-Salmonella-Enteritidis Aug.-Sep. 1999 SalmonllaMuenchen 157 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx; Proctor, M. E., Hamacher, M., Tortorello, M. L., Archer, J. R., & Davis, J. P. (2001). Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serovar Muenchen infections associated with alfalfa sprouts grown from seeds pretreated with calcium hypochlorite. Journal of clinical microbiology, 39(10), 3461-3465. May. 1999 SalmonellaSaintpaul 36 Clover sprouts California, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Jan. 1999 SalmonellaMbandaka 83 Alfalfa sprouts Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx; Gill, C. J., Keene, W. E., Mohle-Boetani, J. C., Farrar, J. A., Waller, P. L., Hahn, C. G., & Cieslak, P. R. (2003). Alfalfa seed decontamination in Salmonella outbreak. Emerging infectious diseases, 9(4), 474. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2957971/ Jan. 1999 SalmonellaTyphimurium 112 Clover sprouts Colorado, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx; Brooks, J. T., Rowe, S. Y., Shillam, P., Heltzel, D. M., Hunter, S. B., Slutsker, L., … & Luby, S. P. (2001). Salmonella Typhimurium infections transmitted by chlorine-pretreated clover sprout seeds. American journal of epidemiology, 154(11), 1020-1028. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/154/11/1020.short Aug.-Sep. 1999 S. paratyphi B var java 51 Alfalfa sprouts Canada: Stratton, J., Stefaniw, L., Grimsrud, K., Werker, D. H., Ellis, A., Ashton, E., … & Jensen, B. (2001). Outbreak of Salmonella paratyphi B var java due to contaminated alfalfa sprouts in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Canada communicable disease report= Relevé des maladies transmissibles au Canada, 27(16), 133. http://www.sproutnet.com/Outbreak-of-Salmonella-Paratyphi Jun. 1998 E. coli O157:NM 8 Alfalfa sprouts California, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx May. 1998 SalmonellaHavana and Cubana 40 Alfalfa sprouts (Havana suspected) Multistate, U.S.: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx Jun.-Jul. 1997 E. coli O157:H7 82 Alfalfa sprouts Michigan and Virginia, U.S.: Breuer, T., Benkel, D. H., Shapiro, R. L., Hall, W. N., Winnett, M. M., Linn, M. J., … & Team, I. (2001). A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. Emerging infectious diseases, 7(6), 977. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2631892/pdf/11747724.pdf; http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00048994.htm 1997 Salmonella Infantis
and Anatum 109 Alfalfa sprouts Kansas and Missouri, U.S.: Taormina, P. J., Beuchat, L. R., & Slutsker, L. (1999). Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(5), 626. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627711/pdf/10511518.pdf; Glynn, M. K., Patrick, S., & Wuhib, T. (1998, April). When health food isn’t so healthy—an outbreak of Salmonella serotypes Anatum and Infantis associated with eating contaminated sprouts, Kansas and Missouri, 1997. In 47th Annual Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Conference. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sep. 1997-Jul. 1998 SalmonellaSenftenberg 60 Alfalfa sprouts California and Nevada, U.S.: Mohle-Boetani, J. C., Farrar, J. A., Werner, S. B., Minassian, D., Bryant, R., Abbott, S., … & Vugia, D. J. (2001). Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella infections associated with sprouts in California, 1996–1998. Annals of Internal Medicine, 135(4), 239-247. http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=714688 1997 SalmonellaMeleagridis 78 Alfalfa sprouts Canada: Taormina, P. J., Beuchat, L. R., & Slutsker, L. (1999). Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(5), 626. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627711/pdf/10511518.pdf 1997 E. coli O157:H7 126 Radish sprouts Japan: Taormina, P. J., Beuchat, L. R., & Slutsker, L. (1999). Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(5), 626. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627711/pdf/10511518.pdf; Gutierrez, E. (1997). Japan prepares as 0157 strikes again. The Lancet, 349(9059), 1156. May.-Jul. 1996  Salmonella Meleagridis and Montevideo 500 Alfalfa and clover sprouts California and Nevada, U.S.: Mohle-Boetani, J. C., Farrar, J. A., Werner, S. B., Minassian, D., Bryant, R., Abbott, S., … & Vugia, D. J. (2001). Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella infections associated with sprouts in California, 1996–1998. Annals of Internal Medicine, 135(4), 239-247. http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=714688 1996 E. coli O157:H7 6,000 Radish sprouts Japan: Watanabe, Y., Ozasa, K., Mermin, J. H., Griffin, P. M., Masuda, K., Imashuku, S., & Sawada, T. (1999). Factory outbreak of Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection in Japan. Emerging infectious diseases, 5(3), 424. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640759/pdf/10341179.pdf 1995-1996 SalmonellaNewport 133 Alfalfa sprouts U.S., Canada and Denmark: Taormina, P. J., Beuchat, L. R., & Slutsker, L. (1999). Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(5), 626. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627711/pdf/10511518.pdf. Van Beneden, C. A., Keene, W. E., Strang, R. A., Werker, D. H., King, A. S., Mahon, B., … & Fleming, D. (1999). Multinational outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections due to contaminated alfalfa sprouts. Jama, 281(2), 158-162.; Wegener HC, Baggesen DL, Neimann J, Nielsen SV. An outbreak of human salmonellosis in Denmark caused by alfalfa sprouts. In: Proceedings and abstracts of the International Symposium on Salmonella and Salmonellosis; Ploufragan, France; May 20-22, 1997:587-589. 1995 SalmonellaStanley 242 Alfalfa sprouts Finland and U.S.: Mahon, B. E., Pönkä, A., Hall, W. N., Komatsu, K., Dietrich, S. E., Siitonen, A., … & Slutsker, L. (1997). An international outbreak of Salmonella infections caused by alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 175(4), 876-882. http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/175/4/876.full.pdf?origin=publication_detail 1994 SalmonellaNewport 154 Alfalfa sprouts Denmark: WHO Surveillance Programe for Control of Foodborne Infections and Intoxications in Europe, 7th Report: Denmark 1993-1998. http://www.bfr.bund.de/internet/7threport/CRs/den.pdf 1994 SalmonellaBovismorbificans 595 Australian alfalfa sprouts seed Sweden and Finland: Taormina, P. J., Beuchat, L. R., & Slutsker, L. (1999). Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(5), 626. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627711/pdf/10511518.pdf; Puohiniemi, R., Heiskanen, T., & Siitonen, A. (1997). Molecular epidemiology of two international sprout-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Journal of clinical microbiology, 35(10), 2487-2491. http://jcm.asm.org/content/35/10/2487.full.pdf; Pönkä, A., Andersson, Y., Siitonen, A., de Jong, B., Jahkola, M., Haikala, O., … & Pakkala, P. (1995). Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts. The Lancet, 345(8947), 462-463. Oct. 1990 SalmonellaAnatum 15 Alfalfa sprouts Washington, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/outbreaknet/pdf/surveillance/1990_linelist.pdf Oct. 1990 unknown 32 Alfalfa sprouts, cucumber, lettuce Washington, U.S.: http://www.cdc.gov/outbreaknet/pdf/surveillance/1990_linelist.pdf 1989 Salmonella Goldcoast 31 Cress sprouts U.K.: Taormina, P. J., Beuchat, L. R., & Slutsker, L. (1999). Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(5), 626. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627711/pdf/10511518.pdf; Joce, R., O’Sullivan, D. G., Strong, C., Rowe, B., Hall, M. L. M., & Threlfall, E. J. (1990). A national outbreak of Salmonella Gold-Coast. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev, 4, 3-4. 1988 Salmonella Saintpauland Virchow PT34(7cases) 143 Mung sprouts U.K.: O’mahony, M., Cowden, J., Smyth, B., Lynch, D., Hall, M., Rowe, B., … & Bartlett, C. L. R. (1990). An outbreak of Salmonella saint-paul infection associated with beansprouts. Epidemiology and infection, 104(02), 229-235. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2271762/pdf/epidinfect00020-0070.pdf 1973 Bacillus cereus 4 Soy, cress, mustard sprouts U.S.: Portnoy, B. L., Goepfert, J. M., & Harmon, S. M. (1976). An outbreak of Bacillus cereus food poisoning resulting from contaminated vegetable sprouts. American journal of epidemiology, 103(6), 589-594.